SHIPPING AND PAYMENT TERMS
In a documentary collection (D/C), the exporter gives control of the payment collection for a sale to its bank (the remitting bank), which then gives the buyer’s bank (the collecting bank) instructions to transfer the necessary documents to the buyer for payment. In return for those documents, money is collected from the importer and sent through the banks participating in the collection to the exporter. When utilising a D/C, the importer must pay the face value of the draught either immediately (document against payment) or on a specific date (document against acceptance). The collection letter contains instructions that list the paperwork needed to transfer ownership of the goods. Although banks do serve as intermediaries for their clients, D/Cs provide no means of verification and just a few options in the event of non-payment. In general, D/Cs cost less than LCs.
When products are sent and delivered before payment is due, which in international sales is often in 30, 60, or 90 days, the transaction is referred to as a “open account transaction.” This is undoubtedly one of the most cost- and cash-efficient solutions for the importer, but it also carries one of the largest risks for the exporter. Foreign buyers frequently demand open account terms from exporters due to the fierce competition in export markets, since the seller’s issuance of credit to The buyer is more prevalent overseas. As a result, exporters who are hesitant to issue loans risk losing a sale to rivals. By utilising one or more of the suitable trade finance approaches discussed later in this Guide, exporters can provide open account terms that are competitive while significantly reducing the risk of non-payment. The exporter may use export credit insurance to seek additional security when providing open account terms.
Consignment is a type of open account used in international trade, however payment to the exporter is not made until the products have been sold by the foreign distributor to the final consumer. An international consignment transaction is based on a legal agreement in which the exporter keeps ownership of the products until they are sold and the foreign distributor receives, handles, and sells them on behalf of the exporter. Exporting products on consignment is obviously very dangerous because the exporter is not guaranteed to receive payment and because the commodities are in the hands of an independent distributor or agency in a foreign country. Consignment boosts exporters’ competitiveness on the based on more readily available commodities and quicker delivery. Exporters can cut their direct inventory management and storage costs by selling on consignment. Working with a reliable and trustworthy international distributor or a third-party logistics provider is essential for consignment export success. Consigned products should be adequately insured while in transit or while in the care of a foreign distributor in order to lessen the risk of non-payment.